A Proposed Algorithm to Detect Invisible Celestial Objects by Developing the General Blackbody Radiation Theory
Corresponding Author: Claude Ziad El-Bayeh
Received: 09.02.202
Accepted 09.02.202
Published 26.05.202

Summary:
Blackbody radiation was proposed by Planck to measure the temperature of a body by observing its electromagnetic waves spectrum. However, when it comes to massive objects such as stars, other factors can affect the emitted wavelength of the light from the body, such as gravitational field and doppler effect, which are caused not only by the star but also by the observer (i.e., Earth). Hence, predicting the surface temperature of a star by using only the blackbody radiation might not be accurate especially for massive stars. To solve the problem, and to give more accuracy to the measurement, this paper proposes an algorithm and a modification of the blackbody radiation theory by considering the impact of relativistic Doppler effect and the gravitational field of both, the emitter (i.e., star), and the receiver (i.e., Earth), on the blackbody radiation theory. For validation purposes, the proposed modification theory is compared to the original one proposed by Planck using four different case studies, (a) sun is considered as an emitter and the earth as the receiver; (b) a massive star is considered as an emitter and the earth as a receiver; (c) the earth is considered as an emitter and a massive star as a receiver; finally (d) two identical stars are considered as emitter and receiver, respectively. Results show that our proposed method works perfectly and gives more accurate results compared to the traditional blackbody radiation theory since the impact of gravitational field and Doppler effect on the spectrum are considered.

Graphical Abstract: